The Ultimate Guide to Granada’s Alhambra

hilltop setting of the Alhambra, a must visit attraction in Granada Spain
hilltop setting of the Alhambra

Here’s my guide to visiting the magnificent Alhambra in Granada Spain. This guide tells you everything to see at the Alhambra, from the mighty Alcazaba to the ornate Nasrid Palace to the stunning Generalife Gardens.

This Alhambra guide also includes must know tips for visiting the Alhambra. The Alhambra is one of Europe’s top sights. But many tourists never get to see it because tickets sell out. 

You can’t just show up at the Alhambra and ricochet around the site. You need a plan of attack and prepaid entry tickets.

guide to the Alhambra

The Alhambra is the world’s last and greatest Moorish fortress. The Alhambra reflects the opulence of the Moorish imagination. Every room is decorated top to bottom with carved wooden ceilings, scalloped stucco, patterned ceramic tiles, and filigree windows.

The Alhambra sits on a stunning piece of real estate – a high, mountainous location on Sabika Hill with sweeping views over Granada and the surrounding countryside. In the Moorish tradition, it’s decorated with water: “standing still, cascading, masking secret conversations, and drip-dropping playfully.”

Alhambra became a UNESCO site in 1984. It’s a deeply affecting place. The Alhambra is so beautiful and enchanting, it’s difficult to process. Or to unglue your camera from your face.

the Alhambra at sunset, a must see site in Granada Spain

History of the Alhambra

The Alhambra began life as a small fortress in 889 A.D. on the remains of ancient Roman ruins.

The Arabic word “Alhambra” means “red one” or “red castle,” referring to the red clay used to construct parts of the complex.

In 1232, the first Nasrid sultan, Mohammad I, established a royal residence when he came to power. Successive rulers made frequent additions and renovations during the 13th and 14th centuries. This was the Alhambra’s most glorious period.

ceiling in the Hall of the Abencerrajes
ceiling in the Hall of the Abencerrajes

In the matter of religion, as befitted a cultured society, the Islamic sultans generally made some effort to tolerate Jews and Christians. They set an example of convivencia, or coexistence.

By the 13th century, the Reconquista was in full swing and Christian military forces reclaimed parts of southern Spain. In 1492, Granada fell, the last Islamic bastion to succumb.

Sultan Boabdil was immediately expelled. Legend holds that he was rebuked by his mother for weeping as he left the Alhambra: “You do well, my son, to cry like a woman for what you couldn’t defend like a man.”

King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, Christian conquerors of the Moors
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, Christian conquerors of the Moors

King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella reclaimed the Alhambra. They transformed it into a royal palace. However, the pair didn’t return the favor of allowing other religions to coexist (even at a price). In 1492, they ousted virtually the entire population of Jews.

Muslims were either forced to convert or expelled from the country. The Muslims that did convert moved to the Albayzín neighborhood, which is now a hip bohemian barrio, across the river from the Alhambra.

Christian rulers destroyed huge portions of the original complex, filled in pools, and boarded up arcades. Rooms were torn apart and a series of alterations gutted parts of the structure.

the famous Lion Fountain in the Nasrid Palace, one of the best things to see at the Alhambra
the famous Lion Fountain in the Nasrid Palace

For fans of English history, this is where King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella’s famous daughter, Katherine of Aragon, grew up. She would become the first and long suffering wife of King Henry VIII, who founded a new religion so that he could divorce Katherine and marry Ann Boleyn.

Later, in 1808, Napoleon arrived. His troops invaded Granada and seized the Alhambra, blowing up parts of the Alcazaba.

Napoleon apparently intended to blow up the palace as well. But a wounded soldier stymied his plans by diffusing the bomb.

a statue of Washington Irving in a park outside the Alhambra with the inscription "Son of the Alhambra"
a statue of Washington Irving in a park outside the Alhambra with the inscription “Son of the Alhambra”

The Alhambra’s Unlikely Savior: Washington Irving

Over the centuries, the Alhambra fell into ruin and disrepair. It was abandoned in the 18th century. Squatters, beggars, and thieves took up residence.

In 1829, Washington Irving moved into the Alhambra along with the squatters. Irving is an American writer and essayist known for his book The Legend of Sleepy Hollow. While there, he wrote Tales of the Alhambra, a collection of Arabian Nights type stories published in 1832.

The romantic stories revived interest in the Alhambra and prompted the Spanish government to begin conservation efforts. Irving eloquently wrote:

“Such is the Alhambra—a Moslem pile in the midst of a Christian land, an Oriental palace amidst the Gothic edifices of the West, an elegant memento of a brave, intelligent, and graceful people who conquered, ruled and passed away.”

“On heavenly nights I would sit for hours at my window inhaling the sweetness of the gardens, and musing on the checkered fortunes of those who history was dimly shadowed out in the elegant memorials around.”

the ruins of the medina in the Alhambra
the ruins of the medina in the Alhambra

What To See at the Alhambra

The Alhambra spans nearly 26 acres, with more than a mile of walls, 30 towers and many smaller structures.

After you enter at the main ticket office, you stroll down the Calle Real de la Alhambra, past the ruins of the Medina. The Medina originally had public baths, shops, and a mosque. It was destroyed by Napoleon’s troops in 1812. Now, you can only see the foundations.

You’ll then pass the Parador de Granada San Francisco, which is a national monument open to the public. The Parador was once a Moorish palace, but was converted into a Franciscan monastery.

Kind Ferdinand and Queen Isabella chose to be buried here. They were interred in the parador until 1521, when they were moved to the Royal Chapel in the center of Granada.

Parador de Granada San Francisco, the chapel where King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella were initially buried
Parador de Granada San Francisco

Four Key Sites To See Inside the Alhambra

There are four main attractions inside the Alhambra: (1) the Nasrid Palace; (2) the Charle’s V Palace, (3) the Alcazaba, and (4) the Generalife Gardens.

You can see the sites in any order. If you want to walk a direct route, you’ll start with the Alcazaba and Charles V’s Palace and then proceed to the Nasrid Palace.

Just make sure to organize your tour around your fixed entry time for the palace. If you miss it, you won’t be allowed in later.

the Alcazaba fortress
the Alcazaba fortress

1. The Alcazaba

What is an Alcazaba, you might be wondering? Alcazaba is an Arabic word that means castle or fort. The Alcazaba’s primary function was defense and shelter from external attacks. It was also a miniature city within a city, lodging the sultans’ guards.

The fortress is one of the oldest parts inside the Alhambra. It possibly pre-dated the arrival of the Muslims. The first historical reference dates from the 9th century. The current fortress was built by Mohammed I in the 13th century.

The entrance to the Alcazaba is Arms Square. In the middle of the square are the remains of Arab residences. Near the Broken Tower, there’s a large dungeon.

Arms Square, the entrance to the Alcazaba
Arms Square, the entrance to the Alcazaba

Arms Square was devoted to military parades during peacetime and to defensive strategy in wartime. For this reason, it’s an open space with few buildings.

The Alcazaba’s defining features are its ramparts and three towers: the Broken Tower (Torre Quebrada), the Keep (Torre del Homenaje), and the Watch Tower (Torre de la Vela).

You can venture up and around all the towers.

The Watch Tower of the Alcazaba with its bell
The Watch Tower of the Alcazaba with its bell

The Watch Tower is the main tower of the Alcazaba. Its name derives from the bell hung in its tallest tower. It is rung on great occasions of state.

From the tower, you have incomparable views over the Albayzín and the Sierra Nevada Mountains. This is the chief glory of the Alcazaba.

Arms Tower is located on the northern ramparts. It has a long rectangular projection, which also makes for great viewing. For centuries, it was the main entry to the Alcazaba.

view from the Watch Tower in the Alhambra
view from the Watch Tower in the Alhambra

a projection from the Arms Tower of the Alcazaba, which attracts photographers
a projection from the Arms Tower of the Alcazaba, which attracts photographers

2. Charles V Palace

In 1526, as conquering kings are prone to do, Charles V built his own palace in the Alhambra. He respected the beautiful Nasrid Palace and left it intact.

Instead, Charles built a fancy Renaissance-style Palace for official functions. He used the existing Nasrid Palace as his residence.

The Renaissance palace is lovely. But it stands out like a sore thumb amidst all the elegant Moorish architecture.

Charles V's Renaissance Palace in the Alhambra
Charles V’s Renaissance Palace in the Alhambra

Nevertheless, the palace is Spain’s most impressive Renaissance building. It has a circle within a square design and a two tiered colonnade. Try standing in the center; it is an impressive sight.

The Palace was meant to have a dome. But Charles’ son abandoned the project. instead, he built his own massive palace outside Madrid.

The Alhambra Museum is on the south side of the ground floor of the Charles V Palace. The museum houses a collection of tiles, pottery, and lion fountains. The Fine Arts Museum is on the top floor of the palace with Granadian sculptures and paintings from the 15th to 20th centuries.

peaceful courtyard in the Nasrid Palace
peaceful courtyard in the Nasrid Palace

3. Nasrid Palace

The Nasrid Palace is undoubtedly the crown jewel of the Alhambra. It’s well-preserved and well-restored. The palace offers the finest example of the refined, intricate, and elegant architectural style of the Moorish civilization.

The photogenic palace is a harmonious masterpiece of light, space, and water built out of brick, wood and stucco. Every inch of the rooms are decorated, top to bottom, with ceramic tiles, elaborate plaster work, calligraphy, filigreed windows, and stucco stalactite ceilings.

Originally, the palace was painted in bright colors — red, blue, green, and gold. But the colors faded over time.

There are three basic sections to the palace: royal offices, ceremonial rooms, and private quarters. You begin by walking through the Mexuar, the administrative rooms. Then you walk into the large rectangular Courtyard of the Myrtles, which is a showstopper.

Courtyard of the Myrtles in the Nasrid Palace
Courtyard of the Myrtles in the Nasrid Palace

Courtyard of the Myrtles

The Courtyard of the Myrtles was also called the Patio of the Pond or the Patio of the Reservoir, for obvious reasons. Here, a shimmering 150 foot pool reflects intricate plaster tracery of the gallery arches.

It’s a standard Moorish design. The Moors loved their courtyards and patios with the accompanying garden and water under the sky. At each end are colonnades with exquisitely carved arches.

Grand Hall of the Ambassadors in the Nasrid Palace
Grand Hall of the Ambassadors in the Nasrid Palace

Grand Hall of the Ambassadors

Head left through an antechamber and you arrive in the Grand Hall of the Ambassadors. It is the largest room in the Alhambra, 37 feet square and 75 feet tall.

This was the ornate throne room for the Moorish sultans. Its main aim was to impress. Here, the sultans, seated on their thrones, received visitors, vassals, and foreign emissaries.

domed ceiling of the Grand Hall of Ambassadors in the Nasrid Palace
domed ceiling of the Grand Hall of Ambassadors in the Nasrid Palace

The ceiling is extremely elaborate and suggests the complexity of the universe. It was constructed using 8,000 small cedar wood pieces to make a delicate mosaic, which conjures the image of a star-scattered night sky.

The ornamental detail in the room is stunning. Consistent with Muslim traditions, there is no figurative artwork.

Rather, the designs consist of religious messages, plant life, floral patterns, and calligraphy.

column details in the Nasrid Palace
Patio del Mexuar in the Alhambra
Patio del Mexuar

In 1492, two historic events occurred in this room.

First, Boabdil officially surrendered to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella.

Second, Christopher Columbus made his first pitch to the conquering Reconquistas. He asked them to finance his sea voyage to the Orient.

Most courtiers were skeptical and thought Columbus had underestimated the size of the world. But Queen Isabella was not. She authorized his madcap voyage of discovery.

elaborate ceiling of the Palace of the Lions
elaborate ceiling of the Palace of the Lions

Palace of the Lions

The Palace of the Lions was built by Mohammed V and was the residence of the royal family. A beautiful arched gallery supported by 124 columns surrounds its 14th century rectangular Courtyard of the Lions.

This is probably the most iconic part of the Nasrid Palace. The best photo shots are from the Mocarabes Gallery.

the iconic fountain in the Courtyard of the Lions in the Nasrid Palace
the iconic fountain in the Courtyard of the Lions in the Nasrid Palace

ornate door in Courtyard of the Lions in the Nasrid Palace
ornate door in Courtyard of the Lions

Mohammed V built the alabaster fountain in the 1360. It has a complex hydraulic system consisting of a marble basin on the backs of twelve carved stone lions situated at the intersection of two water channels that form a cross.

The four water channels symbolize the four rivers of paradise. The lions, all with different faces, are a symbol of power and courage. They were cleaned and restored in 2010.

The courtyard connects to the Hall of the Abencerrajes. This is perhaps my favorite part of the whole Alhambra because of its incredible ceiling.

the ceiling in the Hall of the Abencerrajes
the ceiling in the Hall of the Abencerrajes

Hall of the Abencerrajes

The Hall of Abencerrajes was the sultans’ living room, and it’s a stunner. It has perhaps the most exquisite ceiling in the Nasrid Palace, based on an eight sided Mulim star in blue, brown, red, and gold colors.

The name of the room comes from a gruesome legend. Sultan Moulay Hacén, the father of Boabdil, took a new wife and wanted to disinherit his prior children.

To ensure they didn’t rise to seize power, the sultan killed 30 family members. It’s said that he stacked their heads up in the pool under the ceiling. The reddish color in the hall’s fountain is purportedly stained by the bloodshed.

a detail from the beautiful ceiling in the Hall of the Abencerrajes
a detail from the beautiful ceiling in the Hall of the Abencerrajes

Hall of the Kings

This room is undergoing renovation. But you’ll only be able to see parts of it.

In a palace otherwise devoid of figures, this room offers a rare glance at life in the palace. There are paintings depicting courtly life, including the sultans, hunting scenes, and shootings scenes.

The Hall of the Kings is divided into three square spaces with porticos in the center. These spaces are perpendicularly segmented by large double stalactite arches.

ceiling of the Hall of Two Sisters with its dome of mocarabes
ceiling of the Hall of Two Sisters with its dome of mocarabes

Hall of the Two Sisters

The Hall of the Two Sisters is nicknamed for the massive slabs of white marble on the floor. You enter via a well preserved wood den with a semicircular festooned arch.

It’s a typical royal bedroom with a lovely view of the Courtyard of the Lions and the Gardens of the Partal.

The hall has yet another spectacular ceiling, carved in the 16th century. The dome is lit by lateral windows. It evokes an exquisite flower.

bay window in the Hall of the Two Sisters with a garden view
bay window in the Hall of the Two Sisters with a garden view

the Royal Baths in the Nasrid Palace
the Royal Baths in the Nasrid Palace

Royal Baths

The Royal Baths are known as El Bano de Comares. They’re the only fully intact medieval bath in the Western World. The baths were used by the Catholic kings as their private bathing area in the 15th century.

This area is often closed to visitors because of its fragile and delicate state. But you can see parts of the baths from a gallery corridor. The ceiling has star shaped openings, which were used to regulate the temperature and steam.

There’s also beautiful Alicatado tile work in cobalt blue, green, gold, and white colors. The Alicatado style is a mosaic formed of polygonal glazed tiles in geometric patterns.

Peinador de la Reina in the Alhambra
Peinador de la Reina

Peinador de la Reina

The Peinador de la Reina is the queen’s dressing room. This space is a complete contrast to other places in the Nasrid Palace.

It was built in 1537 for the Empress Isabel (Charles V’s wife) after the conquest of Granada. The room is set high in what was formerly the Tower of Abu I Hayyay. One corridor is open to the landscape, with spectacular views over the Albayzin neighborhood.

The walls are painted with Italian style frescos by Julio Aquiles and Alexander Mayner. There are military scenes depicting an expedition of Charles V. And there are other decorative motifs — flowers, animals, and angels.

Unfortunately, this area is closed to public visitors. You can only see it on a private tour.

the Partal Palace and its five arched portico
the Partal Palace and its five arched portico

Partal Palace

The Partal Palace was built in the early 14th century. It is also known as the Portico Palace because of the portico formed by a five arched arcade at one end of a large pool. Above the arches are Arabic signs of delicacy and complexity.

It is one of the oldest palace structures in the Alhambra complex. Only a fragment of the original palace still stands.

Leaving the palace, climb a few stairs and follow signs directing you to the Generalife Gardens.

fountain in the famous avenue of cypress trees in the Alhambra's Generalife Gardens
fountain in the famous avenue of cypress trees

4. Generalife Gardens

The Nasrid sultans didn’t limit themselves to building within Alhambra’s ramparts. Just beyond the walls lie the Generalife Gardens, one of the best preserved Nasrid estates.

The gardens are also known as the Architect’s Gardens, which may be a translation of the term Generalife. I think they’re best left for last, so you can relax and reflect after all the architectural magnificence.

Generalife was the lush leisure villa of the last dynasty of Moorish sultans. They spent their summers here to escape the intense heat. Generalife is considered one of Europe’s most beautiful formal gardens.

fountain in the Generalife Gardens
fountain in the Court of the Main Canal in the Generalife Gardens

The gardens are thought to date from the 13th century. At that time, they contained orchards and vegetable gardens. The current gardens, however, date to 1931, when they were restored as part of the ongoing renovation of the Alhambra.

The Generalife comprises a lower garden, the palace residence, and upper gardens. A simple one way path guides you through the gardens.

Terraced gardens, cloisters, pools, and fountains combine to enchanting effect. Even in winter, the gardens are quite beautiful, complete with cypress trees, pomegranate trees, hedgerow mazes, fountains, flowers, and elaborate irrigation systems.

view of the Nasrid Palace and Alcazaba from Generalife
view of the Nasrid Palace and Alcazaba from Generalife

Make sure to seek out the Escalera del Auga, or Water Stairway. Its bannisters double as little water canals or luges.

At the top of the Water Stairway, you will reach the highest point of the Generalife Gardens and enter its bright white palace, the Court of la Acequia.

the long reflecting pool in the Court of la Acequia
the long reflecting pool in the Court of la Acequia

The palace is essentially an enclosed oriental garden built around a long central pool. The pulsing fountains, while a delight, are from the 19th century. At the end of the pond, you enter the sultans’ three room summer retreat.

While it has some Moorish flourishes, the overall effect is somewhat different than other parts of the Alhambra complex.

The Court of la Acequia in the Generalife Gardens
The Court of la Acequia in the Generalife Gardens

From the last room, there are steps to the upper level and the Renaissance gardens, circa 1600. There are amazing views of the entire Alhambra complex and the town of Granada behind it.

While strolling the gardens, you will also find a modern outdoor theater with a cypress-lined stage. It’s still a concert venue for Granada.

views of the Alhambra and Granada from the upper renaissance gardens of the Generalife
views of the Alhambra and Granada from the upper Renaissance Gardens of Generalife

the cypress lined stage of the theater of the Generalife Gardens
the cypress lined stage of the theater of the Generalife Gardens

Mirador de San Nicolas

The Mirador de San Nicolás is perhaps the most famous viewpoint in Granada. Here, you can see the Alhambra sprawled across the wooded hilltop against the backdrop of the dark misty Sierra Nevada mountains.

This is the ideal place for a classic sunset shot. When former president Bill Clinton visited in 1997, he said the Mirador had “the most beautiful sunset in the world.”

my sunset view of the Alhambra from the Mirador de San Nicolas
my sunset view of the Alhambra from the Mirador de San Nicolas

The mirador is located in the Albayzín neighborhood. Just next to the viewpoint is the Church of San Nicolás, built in 1525. The church is a combined Mudejar and Gothic style, built on top of a mosque like so many other Andalusian churches.

You can get to the Mirador de San Nicolás from Plaza Isabel Católica in the small red minibuses that go to the Albayzín.

There are also great views of the Alhambra from Granada’s other worldly gypsy neighborhood, Sacramonte, where residents still live in caves.

daylight view of the Alhambra from Mirador de San Nicolas
daylight view of the Alhambra from Mirador de San Nicolas

The Alhambra is a remarkable, immense place. The atmosphere inside is weightier than the words I use to describe it. The elegant Moorish artistry is more glorious than the photographs I present to show it. The whole experience is quite overwhelming. The splendor of the Moorish civilization shines brightly.

Lonely Planet calls the Alhambra “Granada’s – and Europe’s – love letter to Moorish culture, a place where fountains trickle, leaves rustle, and ancient spirits seem to mysteriously linger.” Don’t miss the experience if you are visiting Andalusia!

Practical Information and Tips for Visiting the Alhambra

Before you visit, you may want to read the Alhambra official visitor guide. A youtube guide to the design and architecture of the Alhambra is here.

map of the Alhambra

You can print a map of Alhambra here and this is a guide to understanding the layout.

1. Address: Albayzín neighborhood, Calle Real de la Alhambra, s/n, 18009 Granada

2. Getting there:

By Foot: from Plaza Nueva, it’s about a 20-25 minute steep hike

By Taxi: It’s a 7 euro taxi ride from the taxi stand in Plaza Nueva

By Bus: Just uphill from the Plaza de Isabel La Catolica, catch a red #C30 or #C32 minibus marked Alhambra, which leave every 8-12 minutes

By Car: Parking is onsite near the main entrance at Camino Viejo del Cementerio, 2A, 18009 Granada

Generalife Gardens at the Alhambra

3. Entry Fees:

The Alhambra General ticket is 14 euros. This is the only ticket that allows you to see the Nasrid Palace during the day.)

It’s best to purchase your ticket online up to 3 months in advance of your visit. Order tickets online here. You can also visit the Nasrid Palace and Generalife Gardens at nighttime for 8 euros.

But you can’t do both. You must pick one or the other.

Patio de los Leones
Patio de los Leones

4. Step By Step Process for Buying an Alhambra Ticket Online:

If you’re a planner, Alhambra tickets can be purchased up to a year in advance. Here’s the way to do it online:

1. Visit the official Alhambra ticketing site

2. Choose your preferred ticket option

3. Select the type of ticket you need. Children under 12 need a ticket even though entry is free

4. Select the date and time you wish to enter the Nasrid Palace

5. Enter your personal details, including your passport number

6. Make payment

7. Print your tickets at home or collect them from the ticket office

8. If you already have a printed ticket, you can enter at the Puerta de la Justica, instead of the main entrance

columns in the Charles V Palace
columns in the Charles V Palace

5. Picking up tickets at the Alhambra:

It’s easiest to print your tickets at home. If you pick your ticket up at Alhambra, go to the main entrance to the windows marked “Retired de Reserves” or use the Ticketmasters machines in the pavilion behind the bookstore.

Allow 30 minutes to pick up your ticket and walk to the Nasrid Palace.

6. Plan your Time at the Alhambra

Alhambra General tickets are sold with a specific 30 minute time slot for admission to the Nasrid Palace. 300 people enter every 30 minutes. You must enter the Palace within the window or you will be denied entrance; the guards are strict.

Courtyard of the Myrtles in the Alhambra
Courtyard of the Myrtles

There’s often a long queue, so get there at least 20 minutes before your designated admission time. In high season, you may need to line up 60 minutes in advance.

Once you enter the Alhambra complex via the main entrance, it’s a 15 minute walk to the Nasrid Palace entrance.

7. Opening Hours

Entire complex: Open daily from 8:30 am to 8:00 pm.

From mid-October through March: 8:30 am to 6:00 pm.

The ticket office opens at 8:00 am.

The Nasrid Palace and Generalife Gardens are also open Tues-Sat for nighttime visits, but only on Fri-Sat off season. Buy your tickets here.

tiles in the Alhambra
tiles in the Alhambra

8. Other Tips for Visiting the Alhambra

Alhambra Museum:

Where: ground floor of the Charles V Palace

Hours: Tues-Sat 9:00 am to 2:00 pm

Entry fee: 1.50 euros

Fine Arts Museum:

Where: top floor of the Charles V Palace

Hours: Tues 2:30 pm to 8:30 pm, Wed-Sat 9:00 am to 8:30 pm, Sun 9:00 am to 2:30 pm

Entry fee: 1.5 euros

Courtyard of the Lions in the Alhambra
Courtyard of the Lions

I hope you’ve enjoyed my guide to the Alhambra. You may enjoy these other Spain travel guides and resources:

30+ Secret Towns in Spain Most Beautiful Places in Andalusia

Six 1 Week Itineraries for Spain

10 Day Road Trip From Madrid To Seville

10 Day Itinerary for Basque Spain

10 Day Itinerary From Barcelona to Bilbao

3 Day Itinerary for Seville

3 Day Itinerary for Barcelona

40+ Landmarks in Barcelona

2 Day Itinerary for Bilbao

2 Day Itinerary for Madrid

Famous Landmarks in Spain

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guide to visiting the Alhambra in Granada Spain

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